Status: city of republican significance.
Number of residents, thousand: 379.5
Total area, sq. Km: 1079.6; (by land: 863.5 sq. Km)
Density of population (persons per 1 sq. Km): 439
Total number of settlements: 29
The city of Sevastopol is an administrative and territorial unit of Ukraine with a special status, which includes four districts (Leninskyi, Nakhimoskyi, Balaklavskyi, and Gagarinskyi), city of Inkerman (city of rayon significance), and 29 villages and settlements.
Sevastopol is one of the biggest non-freezing commercial and fishing seaports. It is an industrial, scientific, technical, recreational, cultural and historical center in the south of Ukraine. The city is situated in the south-western part of the Crimean peninsula on the same latitude as the Italian city of Milan and French city of Lion.
The distance from Sevastopol to Kyiv is 1,050 km, with 1,500 km to Moscow, 85 km to Yalta, 490 km to Istanbul, 1.700 km to Rome, 2.100 to Marseille, 2.400 km to Paris, and 2.800 km to London.
The Sevastopol region borders on the Bakhchysarai rayon in the north-east and with the Greater Yalta in the south-east. The region is washed by the warm waters of the Black Sea in the west and south.
The total land area of the Sevastopol region constitutes 863.5 sq. km, of which 12% are inhabited, 29% are occupied by agricultiural lands, 41% are occupied by forests and noubtains,
25% are represented by the industrial and residential districts, and 6% (57 sq. km) are occuiped by the main naval base housing army units and naval vessels of the Ukrainian Naval Forces and Russian Black Sea Fleet, vessels of the Ukrainian State Border Guards, and Ukrainian research vessels.
The city occupies a vast twenty-kilometer coastal territory and stretches for 50 km from Cape Sarych, the southernmost point of Ukraine and the Crimea, to the north. The length of the city from the west to the east constitutes 43 km. The coastal line stretches for 152 km, with the length of the land frontier being 106 km. The Ukrainian maritime State Boundary runs for 143 km across the territory of the Sevastopol region.
The climate on the territory of the Sevastopol region is similar to the Mediterranean subtropical climate characteristic of the Southern Coast of The Crimea
There are more than 2 thousand archaeological, historic, cultural, art, and natural monuments on the territory of the city. The city has a network of theatres, houses of culture, museums, and stadiums. On average, about five hundred tourists visit Sevastopol every year.The table shows the data about all registered business entities in the city (excluding state-owned institutions, communal organisations and establishments). These are represented by associations, corporations, consortiums, concerns and other associations of corporate entities, affiliations, representative offices, commodity exchanges, credit unions, consumer societies, political parties, non-governmental organisations, religious organisations, trade unions, charity organisations, and condominiums.
The number of business entities registered in the city is constantly growing and over the last year their number increased by 1,100. The highest growth rate was observed in the Leninskyi District.
The biggest part of business entities created in the city is engaged in wholesale and retail trade, real estate activities, and services. The realty market is represented by 150 real estate agencies and about 200 private brokers, totalling, in general, up to 2,000 persons. On average, there are 5 contracts per 1 broker a year.
The fourth place by the number of business entities is occupied by the industrial sector. The city has quite advanced shipyards and radio-electronic industry. Companies representing the food, processing, light industry, wood and metal processing, metallurgy, construction materials, shipbuilding, and instrument-making sectors operate in the city.
A good portion of the industrial sector of the city is interrelated with the international multi-functional commercial sea port. The territory and water area of the port houses the fishing port, commercial sea port, four shipyards, two oil terminals and other enterprises of the sea industry sector. These are represented by a number of big fishing companies and fish-processing enterprises. Fish- processing vessels and floating fish factories produce canned fish, smoked fish, and dried and pickled fish.
The major part of the refrigerator cargo fleet of Ukraine (or 4% of the whole world refrigerator fleet) and fishing, transportation, as well as research vessels are based in Sevastopol. The ship repair capacity of the city is represented by six enterprises capable of restoring vessels of any types and categories.
All components of the commercial sea complex of Sevastopol are located on the territory of its 25 bays, with their facilities occupying more than 20 km of the quayage. The majority of berths (90%) are used for military purposes. The Sevastopol bays do not freeze up and are well protected from winds and waves, thus making the Sevastopol port the only one in Ukraine to be able to receive and serve vessels of various types and displacement capacity. Only a bit more than 2 km of quayage are used for commercial purposes where up to 700 merchant vessels are served and about 6 million tons of cargo are processed every year. Presently, only less than 20% of the potential capacity of the Sevastopol commercial maritime facilities are used.
Extraction of ores in the Balaklava region with the production of limestones for metallurgical and chemical industries plays an important role in the economy of the region. The raw materials, which do not meet the standards of the metallurgical industry, are used to produce miscellaneous construction materials, such as: crushed stone of various calibres, marble aggregate, quarry stone, etc. The Inkerman quarry is famous for the extraction of the Inkerman Stone, a white construction limestone used both for the needs of construction companies in Sevastopol and for exports to a number of foreign countries.
The structure of the agricultural sector in the region consists of 96.5% of plant growing sector and of 3.5% of cattle breeding. The arable lands occupy 14.5 thousand hectares of the total territory of the city including 6.4 thousand hectares of vineyards, 0.8 thousand hectares of fruit orchards, and
1.9 thousand hectares of grain crops. The agricultural sector of the region specialises in growing best kinds of grapes for table wines, as well as technical grapes for dry wines, champagne and unique vintage wines. The Sevastopol table wine grapes are known for their high quality making it a very good product to sell to customers for quite a long period during a year. The advanced technological and industrial basis of wine-making, respect to traditions and experience of local
wine-makers has made the city a supplier of best wines and champagne both in Ukraine and
abroad (the Russian Federation, Germany, France, etc.). The leading companies representing the national wine-making industry are: the Inkerman Winery (vintage wines), "Zolota Balka" Agricultural Firm and Sevastopol Winery.
As of January 1, 2012, the volume of sales of the industrial sector constituted more than 1.8 billion UAH, with 74% of that amount represented by the processing industry. The biggest share in the structure of the processing industry is represented by food industry companies, followed by the machine-building sector. The light industry of the region (0.6% – about 9 million UAH) is represented by ready-made garments and knitwear factories including the most famous local clothes factory named after Nina Onilova specialising in dresses and suits. Retail trade turnover reached more than 4 billion UAH. The sales of the restaurant sector amounted up to 200 million UAH. The sales of paid services to citizens exceeded 11.5 million UAH. The overall annual growth of the retail trade turnover in the city of Sevastopol constitutes, on average, 25-30%.
The city is engaged in foreign trade with 101 countries in the world. The Sevastopol commercial and fishing ports are actively engaged in the transshipment of various types of cargo all year round including oil products whose total volume reaches up to 1 million tons a year. The foreign trade in goods was characterised by the following indicators: 109 million USD of exports, 41 million USD of imports, with the trade balance being + 57 million USD. The key components of imports are: non-ferrous and ferrous metallurgy products, electrical equipment, mazout, diesel fuel, technical oils, lacquers, paints, cable products, plastics, video equipment, measuring devices, perfumery and cosmetics, goods for vessels; and fishing industry products. Fuel and oils (36%), goods for vessels purchased in foreign ports (16%), food products of fish and lobsters (4%), and electrical machines and electrical equipment (7%) prevail in the structure of imports. The imports of services are mainly represented by transportation services with 46%. The main exported products are: electrical equipment and electrical machines, ferrous metals and goods made of them, nuclear reactors, moulds, and some types of equipment and devices. The leading positions in the structure of exports are taken by a group of products, which includes electrical machines and electrical equipment (37.7%), finished foodstuffs (20.4%), ferrous metals and goods made of them (15.3%), and goods for vessel repairs. The biggest shipments of products go to Russia, which constitutes 33.6% of the total volume of exports, with the share of exports of services to Russia being 15%.
Over the last five years, the volume of exports of goods and services to Russia has been growing most rapidly. In 2007, the volume of exports constituted more than 85 million USD.
The second place is occupied by exports to Middle East countries, and EU countries, which were not recorded, however, their total volume exceeds exports to Russia and constituted more than 100 million USD in 2012.
The total volume of exports of goods to India constituted 9%, with 8% to New Zeeland, 7% to Turkey, 7% Mauritania, 7% to Japan, and 6% to USA. The share of exports of services to the Virginia Island constituted 14%, with 12% to Cyprus, 6% to Malta, 7.5% to Great Britain, and 5% to Vietnam. The biggest share of imports is represented by imports to Greece with 22%, Turkey with
13%, Cyprus with, and Russia with 4%.
As of January 1, 2012, the total volume of foreign direct investments in the city of Sevastopol constituted 166.6 million USD.
At the same time, taking into account the vast city territory with its huge hidden investment potential of Sevastopol, as well as the fact that the growth rate over the last couple of years, and the volume of attracted investments, one can make a conclusion that the city needs to take aggressive steps to increase the volume of investments and overcome the looming decline tendencies.
The biggest volume of foreign investments was received from Cyprus (50.3%) and Russia (15.1%). The investments went to the construction and putting into operation of specialised port terminals for transshipment of bulked cargos, grain and other types of freight in the Sevastopol and Kamyshova bays.
Last year, the most dynamic investment growth was observed with the investments coming from Cyprus (40% growth). This, apparently, indicates the active investment activities of local and national businesses, however the volume of investments from the Russian Federation and Germany was also high. The construction and putting into operation of the grain terminal owned by the Avlita Company was one of the most significant investment projects implemented in 2005. The terminal created new facilities in the port, new jobs, additional revenues to the city budget, and provided access to the global grain market. According to the preliminary estimations, about 4.5 billion USD of direct investments are needed for the renovation of mooring lines and other port facilities in Sevastopol.
The population of the Sevastopol region constitutes 379.3 thousand. 358.5 thousand people (94%) live in cities, with the remaining 22.9 thousand (6%) living on the territories of village councils and rural areas.
The natural decrease of the population was partially compensated with migration processes. The number of newcomers to the city has always exceeded the number of outgoers, whereas in 2006 the migration balance was almost equal to the natural population decrease. Over the last 7 years, more than 43 thousand new residents came to the city. These individuals have contributed to the
13 thousand city population increase.
The inter-state migration data shows that 92.3% of migrants were representatives from the CIS countries and 7.7% were representatives of foreign countries. The structure of those who left the city was the following: 88.5% left for the CIS countries and 11.5% went to foreign countries. In general, the continuous demographic ageing of the population can be observed. For instance, the number of children is getting smaller, whereas the number of pension-age individuals has increased by 40% over the last 15 years. All in all, there are 114.5 thousand pensioners (including pensioners of the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Security Service of Ukraine, and National Guard) or 30.2% of the total city population. The number of females over 60 almost doubles the number of males. The total number of males in the city is 173.5 thousand (45.7%), with 205.9 thousand of females (54.3%). Presently, the average life expectancy for the Sevastopol residents is 69 years, with 63 years for males and 74.5 years for females. The total working age population has practically not changed and constitutes about 67% of the total permanent city residents. Representatives of 26 nationalities live in the Sevastopol region including 74% of Russians, 21% of Ukrainians. Representatives of other major national groups are: Byelorussians, Crimean Tatars, Jews, Armenians, Greeks, Germans, and Bulgarians.
The statistics offices do not have data about the educational levels of the city population. The housing stock of the city constitutes 7,824 thousand m2 of the total residential floor space including the 82.4% share of private housing stock. The average housing floor space per resident is 20.1 м2. More than 2.5% of all housing stock has been privatised by city residents. The housing and utilities sector in the city is in a critical condition: 142 buildings are in a hazardous condition, all lifts in multi-storeyed buildings, whose operation life exceeds 25 years, have to be either renovated or replaced. The working age population in the city constitutes 235.2 thousand. The share of youth of the age of 15 – 34 years old in the total number of payroll employees in the city constitutes 27.2%. The biggest share of young employees can be observed in such areas of economic activities as: finance (60.1%), wholesale and retail trade (45.9%), public administration (39.9%), and transportation and communication (27.9%). From the quantitative point of view, the biggest number of youth works in industry, education and transportation.
The operational length of the railway transportation network is 200 km, with the length of trolley-us lines of 134 km, the length of highways of national, republican and local status being 759 km including 591 km of roads covered with hard surface (78.0%). There are 9 highway bridges and 7 overpasses. There are six railway stations in the region. The total length of railways is 35 km. The railway stations process up to 600 freight cars a day. The carrying capacity of the railway branch line leading to Sevastopol from the mainland via Simferopol is 23 pairs of trains (both ways) a day. The railway branch lines and terminals have access to most of the Sevastopol bays, which makes it easy to perform any type of transshipments and cargo transfers. The main highways are: Sevastopol – Simferopol and Sevastopol – Yalta, whose carrying capacity is 18 thousand vehicles a day, provide access to all Crimean regions. In addition to that, there is a branchy network of highways of local and republican status in the region.
Sevastopol is the only non-freezing port in Ukraine with the natural depth of the navigating channel of more than 17 meters. There is also a more than 30-km long high tech mooring line infrastructure within the city outskirts. The city has 287 sea terminals, some of which are deep-water ones and are capable of serving heavy load vessels with 10-15 meter deep water line. The 600-radius zone off Sevastopol includes the territories of 12 maritime states. This testifies to the huge support to the profitability potential of maritime freight services. There are two first-class airdromes on the territory of the city with the take-off runway of 3.2 km capable of receiving passenger and cargo planes of any kinds. Belbek, the biggest airdrome is capable of receiving up to 500 tons of freight and 500 passengers a day.
There are 75 post offices in the city. The supply of telephones for citizens is 30 units per 100 residents. The profits of the telecommunications company are about 220 million UAH a year, including 30 million UAH from mobile telecommunications services and about 3.5 million UAH from computer services.
The city educational potential includes 219 establishments representing all types and forms of ownership which train and educate 78 thousand children and which employ about 6 thousand teachers. The network of infant schools consists of 87 establishments including 74 schools owned by the local community and 13 company owned schools. All in all, 10.6 thousand of children are trained in these schools, or 75% of all children in the city (the average for Ukraine is 85.2%). In some of the city districts one can observe the growing lack of vacant slots for children in infant schools. Since 1991, no new schools were put into operation. The waiting line to infant schools consists of 1.5 thousand applications. There are 74 comprehensive educational establishments in the region attended by 30.5 thousand schoolchildren. The system of education also includes 19 new type schools (gymnasiums (grammar schools), lyceums for talented children and specialised schools) which are attended by 20% of the total number of schoolchildren (5.5 thousand). 85% of schools have introduced innovative training techniques in their curriculum. Specialised training has been introduced in 93% comprehensive educational establishments.
The system of higher education includes 31 higher educational establishments including 5 establishments of the 3rd and 4th certification level; 20 structural affiliations of higher educational establishments of the 3rd and 4th certification levels which include 6 structural departments of higher educational establishments of the 3rd and 4th certification levels of the Russian Federation; 6 higher educational establishments of the 1st and 2nd certification levels; and one affiliation of a higher educational establishment of the 1st and 2nd certification level. The biggest higher educational establishments are: the Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol National Nuclear Energy and Industry University, Sevastopol Red Star Order Navy Institute Named after P.Nakhimov, and Sevastopol City Humanitarian University.
There are 38 health care institutions in the city including: 10 hospitals and clinics (with the total of 2,983 beds), 5 sanitary and epidemiologic stations, 5 dentist offices, hemotransfusion station (Blood Center), first aid station, Health Center, Medical Statistics Center, Children House, Solnyshko Children Health Resort (75 beds), and Teremok Children Health Resort (95 beds). 1,825 doctors of all specialities (48.4 doctors per 10 thousand residents) and 3,700 paramedicals (98.1 paramedicals per 10 thousand residents) provide health care services to citizens.
There are oceanology, biology, hydrophysics and economic sciences institutions, as well as many design offices operating in various spheres in the city. Some of the institutions representing the scientific and engineering elite need to diversify their activities.The scientific and education base of the city is represented by a number of research institutes and technical design institutions including the Research Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Sevastopol State Technical University, Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy, and Sevastopol Naval institute.